What is Trichoderma?
Trichoderma is a naturally occurring fungus found in soils worldwide. It has been studied extensively as a contaminant in mushroom production systems, as a component of industrial cellulase production, as well as for its plant associated biocontrol and growth promotion properties.
Where do you find Trichoderma?
Trichoderma can be isolated from plants and all soil types around the world. That is, it can be free-living or it can grow endophytically (inside the plant). Among endophytic strains, some grow only in the roots while others also grow into the above ground parts of the plants.
Is there only one strain of Trichoderma?
There are many strains of Trichoderma found around the globe. The differences between strains are the same as the differences between different people: genetics. Just as only a select few humans can swim the English Channel, very few strains of Trichoderma have beneficial or consistent effects in agricultural systems. The very first commercialized strain of Trichoderma was T22, developed in the 1980’s by ABM’s Chief Science Officer, Dr. Gary Harman, back when he was faculty at Cornell University. Subsequently, many Trichoderma products have come onto the market, some of which contain T22 or some other purified strain, and others that contain wild or uncharacterized strains or strain mixtures. One factor that distinguishes different strains is the trigger molecules they produce. These triggers are how Trichoderma communicates with its environment, including plants. Different strains produce different triggers and therefore elicit different responses from their plant hosts.
Each ABM’s strains is broadly adapted so that it can thrive in environments ranging from Alabama to Minnesota to South Africa. They have been selected to give consistent performance from year to year and across environments. In addition, different strains perform best in combination with specific crop plants, therefore ABM’s Trichoderma products contain different, patented strains depending on if that product is for corn or wheat or soybeans or cotton or something else.
How does Trichoderma work with the plant?
There are many ways in which Trichoderma works with the plant including antibiosis, competitive exclusion, facilitation of nutrient absorption and uptake, and induction of plant gene expression. There is a great deal of genetic variation between strains which means that different strains may interact with plants by using some, all or even none of the above strategies. The strains that are of the most use to agriculture, influence plant gene expression to enable to plant to perform to the maximum of its genetic potential, resulting in better resistance to stress, bigger and greener plants, and increased yields. All of ABM’s strains are known to work with plants in this way.
How does a plant benefit from added Trichoderma strains?
Plants can benefit from multiple Trichoderma strains because each strain is unique. That is, different strains have different genetics, which means that they possess different traits. This is the same as corn genetics: some hybrids are early maturing while others resist lodging. What underlies these different performance characters are genes. Trichoderma strains show a range of different performance characters and one may confer drought resistance whereas another may increase tillering. Inoculating plant roots with only one of these strains provides only one of these traits, however inoculating with both strains can provide an additive effect with both traits being effected. This synergy does not always occur which is why ABM’s combination products are continually tested for strain compatibility and trait additivity.
Does Trichoderma continue to grow after the harvest of the plant?
Trichoderma strains with agricultural value require the presence of living plant roots. When the crop is harvested and the roots die, that season’s Trichoderma also dies. There are strains that are free-living in the soil and that do not require plant roots, however because these do not establish an endophytic, symbiotic relationship with plants, they’re of little value as agricultural biologicals.
How does Trichoderma work with the plant?
Trichoderma can be applied as a seed treatment on farm or at the seed treater in addition to in furrow, root drench, root dip, as part of an irrigation system, and even a foliar spray. ABM specializes in seed treatments, however our products are used in many different cropping systems both domestically and internationally and can often be adapted to the needs of the region and crop. Our pipeline products are being developed with these different applications in mind.
If Trichoderma already exists in the soil, why does it need to be applied to the seed?
There are about 23 Trillion Trichoderma spores per acre in typical farmland. ABM recommends applying its Trichoderma products at a rate about 10,000x lower than this. So, another question is, won’t the effect of the Trichoderma applied to the seed be completely washed out by the native Trichoderma in the soil? The answer to both questions is that the vast majority of the Trichoderma already present in the soil can’t form the endophytic, symbiotic relationship with the plant that our strains can and, further, the native strains generally have anagrinomically neutral (at best) interaction with plants. The difference between what is applied to the seed and what is naturally in the soil is genetics. ABM has worked hard to select superior genetics that will provide consistent and excellent agronomic performance.
What is the process for finding the correct Trichoderma crop specific strain?
That’s a secret! However, it involves long term testing of candidate strains in our R&D facility, greenhouse testing, and subsequent field testing with crops of interest. A successful strain will perform at a high level in all of these situations over many environments and over many seasons. Through this process we develop strains that show enhanced performance in specific crops and these are then formulated into our crop specific products.
SabrEx® for Corn FAQ
What is SabrEx® for Corn?
SabrEx® for Corn is an inoculant, or seed treatment, applied to the seed before planting. The seed treatment is a unique formulation of two (2) carefully selected, specific, patented, proprietary biological fungi strains called Trichoderma.
What seed products can SabrEx® for Corn be used on?
SabrEx® for Corn can be used on commercial corn, sweet corn and popcorn.
What is Trichoderma and how does it work?
Trichoderma is a fungi that is found in soils all over the world. There are thousands of known Trichoderma strains but only a few are beneficial to plants. Trichoderma colonizes with the plants root system and develops a symbiotic relationship with the plant. The Trichoderma feed from the starches and sugars produced by the plant while exuding beneficial enzymes and proteins for the host plants use. As a result the plant produces a larger root system and improves its nitrogen and water use efficiency, thus resulting in higher yields.
ABM®, in working with Dr. Gary Harman of Cornell University, has developed the technology to isolate and identify specific strains of beneficial Trichoderma. Once the strains are identified and isolated, ABM® tests each strain with various crops to determine which crop receives the most benefit from each strain of Trichoderma. After thorough testing, a formulation is produced and brought to market to benefit farmers.
What kind of yield response can I expect with using SabrEx® for Corn?
Over the past 3 years, in over 181 trials, SabrEx® for Corn has been averaging 7.97 bushels/acre higher yield than untreated plots. In 2012, even with the drought, we are seeing a higher yield response. With today’s corn market at an average of $7.00/bushel, a farmer can typically see a net return on investment of up to $51/acre.
How do I apply SabrEx® for Corn to my seed?
SabrEx® for Corn PB is a planter box treatment that can be added just before planting at the planter box. It consists of a talc/graphite formulation as the carrier for the Trichoderma. You will add .5 oz. of SabrEx® for Corn PB for every 80K kernel unit of seed you add to your planter. Make sure to mix the SabrEx® for Corn PB into the seed corn thoroughly. It should be noted; The talc/graphite formulation also helps to lubricate your planter equipment and also helps provide seed flowability. SabrEx® for Corn PB will not replace your talc or graphite that you’ve been using, however it will complement your treatment.
Where can I get SabrEx® for Corn?
You can contact your Seed Company as many seed companies now apply SabrEx® to their corn in the bag. To find SabrEx® for Corn PB please contact your local ag retailer or co-op or give ABM® a call at 877-617-2461.
How is SabrEx® for Corn packaged?
SabrEx® for Corn PB is available in two different package sizes.
A 12 oz. pouch that treats 24 units of seed. One case contains 6 pouches that will treat a total of 144 units of seed.
A 1 oz. pouch that treats 2 units of seed. One case contains 50 pouches that will treat a total of 100 units of seed.
Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans FAQ
What is Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans?
Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans is an inoculant, or seed treatment, containing a specially formulated blend of Excalibre® Soybean inoculant plus SabrEx® Root Inoculant formulated in a talc-graphite carrier. Graph-Ex SA™ is comprised of both proprietary beneficial bacteria (Bradyrhizobia) and beneficial fungi (Trichoderma) that provide a more efficient use of soil nutrients for the host plant
What is Rhizobia and how does it work?
Bradyrhizobia are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes. Rhizobia require a plant host; they cannot independently fix nitrogen.
At ABM®, our proprietary Bradyrhizobia for soybeans is specific to these crops in helping the plant to establish nitrogen fixing nodules that will convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen that is useable by the plant.
What does the SA mean?
The SA means that ABM® has also added our proprietary, patented Trichoderma strain found in SabrEx® root inoculant found to be beneficial in soybean production.
What is Trichoderma and how does it work?
Trichoderma is a fungi that is found in soils all over the world. There are thousands of known Trichoderma strains but only a few are beneficial to plants. Trichoderma colonizes with the plants root system and develops a symbiotic relationship with the plant. The Trichoderma feed from the starches and sugars produced by the plant; while exuding beneficial enzymes and proteins for the host plant. As a result the plant produces a larger root system and improves its nitrogen and water use efficiency, thus resulting in higher yields.
ABM®, in working with Dr. Gary Harman of Cornell University, has developed the technology to isolate and identify specific strains of beneficial Trichoderma. Once the strains are identified and isolated, ABM® tests each strain, or combinations of strains, with various crops to determine which crop receives the most benefit from each strain of Trichoderma. After thorough testing, a formulation is produced and brought to market to benefit farmers.
How do I apply Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans to my seed?
GraphEx-SA™ for Soybeans is a planter box treatment that can be added just before planting at the planter box. It consists of a talc/graphite formulation as the carrier for the Bradyrhizobia and Trichoderma. You will add 0.5 oz. of Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans to every 140k unit of seed you add to your drill/planter. Make sure to mix Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans thoroughly with the seed. It should be noted; the talc/graphite formulation also helps to lubricate your planter equipment and also helps provide seed flowability. This is important as it will minimize seed hang-ups in your equipment and reduces the wear and tear on your units.
Under what environmental conditions should I use more than the recommended rate of Graph-Ex SA™ on my soybeans?
To maximize yield potential: ABM® recommends a double (2x) inoculant rate when planting soybeans under the following soil conditions:
- Soil that has not hosted the specific legume for more than 3 years.
- Soil pH of less than 5.8 or greater than 8.5
- Organic matter less than 1%
- Drought or flooding
- Soil Temperatures exceeding 80°F
- Eroded soil
- Use of soil treatments and chemicals injurious to soil bacteria and inoculants
What if my soybeans are already treated with an inoculant, can I still use Graph-Ex SA™ for my double rate?
Yes. Using a different source of inoculant is a good choice.
Once I apply the Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans to my seed, how long can I wait to plant the seed?
Once you have applied Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans to your seed it is best to plant it immediately. Occasionally, delays can be expected in farming, however after 72 hours you will need to re-treat your seed with Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans.
What if my seed is already treated with insecticide and/or fungicide, can I still use Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans?
Yes. Apply Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans to your seed only after the pesticide products have dried.
Where can I get Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans?
ABM® does not sell directly to the grower. You can contact your Seed Company, local ag retailer or co-op to purchase ABM® products. Still can’t find it? Feel free to give us a call at 866-335-5994 and we will point you to the nearest location for purchase.
How much does Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans cost?
Typically ABM’s® suggested retail cost for Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans is around $3.35/unit of seed. However, prices may vary.
How is the Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans packaged?
Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans is packaged in 25 oz. pouches. One pouch will treat 50-units of seed. One case contains 6 pouches that will treat a total of 300-units units of seed.
What if I don’t use all of the Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans that I purchased this year?
Graph-Ex SA™ for Soybeans is good for one planting season. What you don’t use will not be good for the next year. Each package is stamped with its expiration date.